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Date: April 15, 2017 Writer / Jamil Ibrahim Odeh
The governments of the world are racing to establish what is known as "e-government" Since a long time, much of the world began to embrace the concept of "e-government" in both developed and developing countries through the use of ICT on the Internet networks in various administrative, economic and trade fields , which allowed the government to its citizens and opportunities to continue away from the usual routine procedures.
The United States of the first countries that have adopted the "e-government" and create e-Citizen, where American citizens come in the forefront of countries in the use of information technology, as the number of users of the personal computer, about almost 70%, while 60% of citizens in America they became citizens of dissidents. America seeks to apply a general and comprehensive policies that pay these rates to rise. It encourages them to that they provide approximately 70% of the cost compared to the cost of providing the same service through direct or traditional transactions.
According to the United Nations e-government report, issued in February, 2012, the United Arab Emirates has made significant progress in the field of e-government at the level of the world, it jumped over a short period of rank 49 to rank 28 globally, the first Arab. Internet users have arrived in the UAE, about 21% of the population, a large proportion compared to other Arab countries.
The question here is; what do you mean "e-government"? What are the benefits of political, economic and administrative implications? And how it can be said that the "e-government" really has become a general human being and a citizen in the countries that adopt ICT in public administration private?
Some governments in many countries underdeveloped still, offering its services to its citizens directly through personal interviews or indirectly by telephone, but the developed countries as a result of the speed of digital communication technology Internet evolution, beyond the concept of direct service to the service of indirect Using what is now known as digital or e-government system of government; became possible applications and rid a lot of transactions directly through automated computer and the Internet. As has become the citizen can get all forms of government transactions from the location of the relevant governmental institution on the World Wide Web or the Web.
E-government means the use of information and communication technology to improve the performance of government services style. In other words, is to change the service performance style of style is characterized by red tape, bureaucracy and the multiplicity and complexity of the procedures to the method is based on the use of information and communication technology to improve the performance of government services, in order to provide citizens an easy way across the Internet, which saves a lot of effort and money to them, exerting downward pressure so the cost of the service performance .
E-government refers to the face of the United Nations looked at the uses of information and communication technologies, such as linking external communications networks, Internet sites, and computer systems by government agencies, and then; the adoption of e-government affects the basic relationship between government agencies by citizens and businesses by else. Iraq is known as e-government use of information and communication technology to provide government services to citizens, businesses and civil society institutions.
E-government aims to facilitate the provision of services to citizens as soon as possible and a high degree of accuracy, and aims to reduce the costs related to government departments from transactions and paper expenses, rental of buildings and consumption of water, electricity and communications, also increase the efficiency, transparency and accuracy of the work of the government through its dealings with citizens and businesses.
The construction of e-government means taking into account all practiced by the government in the real world, both at the level of relationship with government institutions to each other, or the relationship of government institutions, the institutions of the private sector, or the relationship of government institutions with citizens, taking into account the study of the work program of each government institution falls within the e-government so as to find out the pros and cons in order to overcome the negatives and standardize the work of government institutions in the common aspects when converting work e-government.
There is no doubt that the concept of e-government concept of a broad and comprehensive capacity applications to include many areas, but not limited to paying the bills and some other simple transactions, but includes inside everything is government so that its performance through a computer connected to the Internet or through a phone or mobile device without having to personally be in place to get the service.
In fact been "e-government" is divided into eight kinds of e-government, governments seek to implement either immediately or gradually, namely:
(1) The Government of the citizen: any provision of public services from government citizen party directly through information and communication.
And (2) the citizen to the government: to provide the government by the citizen with information and communications.
And (3) the government for business: The initiatives of e-business transactions, such as e-mail tenure and open market for government procurement; and carry out government tenders tenure through electronic methods for the exchange of information and goods.
And (4) the business of the government: to provide any government's economic and commercial activities through electronic sale of goods and services roads.
And (5) government employees: embarking on initiatives that facilitate the management of the civil service and internal communication with government employees can even make the electronic submission of applications for jobs and decide without e-paper in the office.
And (6) The government of the government: provide the departments or government agencies in cooperation and communication directly and rules of enormous government data to influence the efficiency and effectiveness; also include the internal exchange of information and equipment.
And (7) Government institutions Non-profit: the government provides Allarbjeeh organizations (charity), political parties, social organizations and legislative bodies with information.
And (8) non-profit institutions of government: information exchange and communication between the government and non-profit institutions (charity), political parties, social organizations and legislative bodies.
In fact, the "e-government" is a way to improve government performance to become more efficient and effective, and therefore, the adoption of e-government is a process of change that will help to expand the areas of citizens and businessmen to participate in the new economy, knowledge-based, and e-government provides the possibility the involvement of citizens and civil society in the discussion of policies and support decision-making, more understanding of the citizens and their needs.
In order for the electronic government will be effective, there must be many elements and requirements such as the need for a computer, staff to be able to e-government from the exercise of their functions assigned to them within the scope of e-government and request the service and use. This is done through an electronic network linked by those computers.
The presence of the human element is indispensable in the performance of e-government work, it must be a public official knows that the use of different computers and applications, and be trained and possess the academic qualifications that enable him to exercise his functions, how to use e-government. It is also important to develop government institutions: It requires the successful implementation of e-government strategy conduct organizational changes within government institutions and that traditional management methods are not commensurate with the e-government that require flexibility and speed in decision-making, requiring change structures to shift to network infrastructure applications, thereby reducing orientation towards jurisdiction and the division of labor, in turn increases the trend towards the integration of functions and reduce administrative levels, and reduce the regulatory levels.
And enable citizens to deal with the e-government: so that is the citizen's computer and is familiar with ways to deal with e-government, which entails responsibility for the development of curricula and teaching techniques in accordance with the data the electronic age of educational institutions, as a need to increase awareness and culture of citizens and their acceptance of the use of e-government.
We conclude from the foregoing that the use of electronic government has the advantages and characteristics, including:
1. The compilation of all activities and information services in one subject is the official government website.
2. Achieve the speed and effectiveness of the linkage, coordination, performance and achievement between government departments and the same for each government department separately.
3. constant contact with citizens (24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year).
4. The ability to secure all informative and service needs of the citizen.
5. achieve abundance in spending in all the elements, with the best of commercial-yielding government activities returns.
6. Reduce reliance on paperwork.
7. Transparency in handling.
8. break down geographical barriers, and those related to population.
Conclusion: The construction of e-government project centered on the basic idea that investment in information and communication technologies, and to prepare the necessary human element and linking the citizen and government institutions, businesses, and institutions of civil society electronic format uniformly allows various transactions between all of these parties to perform as easily as the necessary speed, which saves time and effort costs, and achieve business enterprises, in particular, the advantages of very important increases the performance of multiple functions within the distinct uses of the digital economy level.
Source / network news information